The aim of this research was to understand the risk factors associated with self-reported proactive violence and victimization among Kosovo high school students.
Data was obtained from 4709 high school students (15-16 years old) from Kosovo that participated in the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). This study followed standardized methodology, sampling, administration and ethical requirements as those of the ESPAD survey which ensures comparability across European countries.
Results from this study support findings from other studies that males had a significantly higher average rank in both proactive violence and victimization categories when compared with females at (p<0.001). In addition, multivariable binary logistic regression showed that matching some factors were more strongly associated with perpetration of pro-active violence and victimization among Kosovo adolescents. The strongest association for proactive violence and victimization was with alcohol consumption over 30 days, followed by skipping school, and having a depressed mood. The weakest associations were observed for relationship with parents and gender. However, self-esteem scores showed there was not a statistically significant difference between pro-active violence and victimization. All of the above indicate an overlap of pro-active violence and victimization among adolescents, highlighting their role as both the perpetrator and the victim.
Key words: proactive violence, victimization, self-esteem, depression, alcohol consumption