Radiology

Aim and program profile

The aim of the BSc programme for radiology technicians is to enable students and future professionals who independently use radiological equipment, to apply and implement all radiological imaging and therapeutic procedures, to make post-processing of the acquired images in the form of 3D reconstructions, to make their transfer to software and hardware and ensure proper archiving. Students who will graduate with BSc degree must be trained to accurately implement the procedure specified by the radiologist, to communicate with the patient and inform him/her correctly about the procedure to be performed. First of all radiological technician should be qualified for managing and preventing risks from radiation during the work he / she performs taking care for his / her own health, health of the patient and co-workers.

Expected learning outcomes

Upon completion of bachelor studies radiology technicians will be able to:
KNOWLEDGE
Apply diagnostic imaging and therapeutic procedures in radiology, oncology and dentistry, in the course of their duties and professional obligations.
Perform radiology imaging procedures under the radiologist supervision by applying the principle of radiation protection.
Implement precautions for personal protection, patient protection, co-workers and staff protection from ionizing radiation.
Creates the required conditions in order to perform the planned radiological procedure, coordinating his/her actions with those of other partners of interest in order to implement the procedure in question.
Conducts post-processing of images obtained in the form of 3D reconstruction.
Transfers radiological images in software and hardware and ensures their proper archiving.

Academic level and degree

Bachelor of Science in Radiology (Radiology Technician), BSc

Duration of studies and workload

3 years (6 semesters)

I

Construction and anatomy of the body- 4 ETCS

Through this module, students will be introduced to the basis of morphological cell construction, contining with parts of the human body, bones of neurocranium, bones of viscerocranium, joints and connections among the fascial bones and paranasal sinuses. Spine, vertebrale, body bones, upper and lower extremities, muscle of the head, kneck, body extremities and muscles. Breathing system, digestive tube, endocrine glands, urogenital system, female and male sexual organs, heart anatomy, arterious and venous system, lymphatic system, and central nervous system.

Imaging radiological anatomy- 9 -ETCS

In this module, students will be introduced to the basis of the imaging visualisation of the neurocranial and viscerocranial bones, joints and connections among fascial bones and paranasal sinuses. Spine, vertebrae, body bones, upper and lower extremities, muscle of the head, neck, body extremities muscles. Breathing system, digestive tube, endocrine glands, urogenital system, female and male sexual organs, heart anatomy, arteries and venous system, lymphatic system, and central nervous system.

Basis of the physics for radiology technicians- 3 ETCS

Basic understanding of physics, radio physics and partly mathematics. Students will understand the interaction between the ionizing radiation and human body in subatomic level, including their general importance. Students will be able to work using simple equations, for example radiation decay, absorption of ionizing radiation, total ionizing doses around the point of the radiation source, calculating error probabilities. Students will be introduced to the most important equipment for detecting radiation. They recognize important equipment for detecting radiation and the principles of clinical dosimeter and have basic understanding of physics, as a precondition to further understanding of the physical-technical subjects.

Radiology imaging devices- 4 ETCS

Content of this module enriches students with historical data, technological development, forms of energies used and technical contents of all segments of radiological items and equipment to be used for diagnostic purposes. In addition this module implies the presentation of content associated with equipment necessary infrastructure for the installation and use of radiological devices.

Imaging with conventional radiology – 3 ETCS

This module aims to present the basis of diagnostic radiology to the students. Upon completing this module, students will understand the construction, function and possibilities from using x-rays in diagnostic purposes. Students will be introduced to the body structural contrast differences which have to be taken into consideration when using imaging techniques in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures during medical imaging. Students will be able to explain to the patient protocols and protective measures during the screening. In addition, students will be able to independently perform conventional imaging examinations (conventional radiology, including mammography) and evaluate the quality of images gained, and also recognize possible errors.

Position of the patient during radiological imaging procedures- 5 ETCS

Upon completion of this course, students will understand the physical basis of radiological imaging techniques and adaptation of the patient position to the screening being performed. Proper positioning of the patient in classical radiology is a precondition for getting the best possible results with maximal image quality and prevent the need for repetition of radiological procedures. Recognition of standard positions or additional ones increases the possibility for obtaining the maximal amount of information on the state of patient’s health. Recognition of the source image alignment enables maximal benefit from generated images.

Practice 1-2 ETCS

Upon completing this course students with master basic skills in their interaction with patients and can apply these in standard situations. They can help with positioning and are able to take over some part of the work. They are informed of specific treatment with dosimeters and can apply the treatments. General treatment of the patient, simple relief from standard examinations, an overview of key departments: diagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy, insight into the daily workings of a hospital.

Basic principles of physiology and pathology -7 ETCS

Students will be introduced to the normal physiology and pathology, with the most common pathology processes including their appearance in the diagnostic imaging examination. Students will be shown the ethyology, epidemiology and prognosis of the most common tumours, with their clinical symptoms which can interact with other pathologies and diseases. Students will be trained to recognise and evaluate normal physiology and pathology in the images gained. They will practice the knowledge of anatomy in examinations with imaging techniques, treatments and interventional procedures performed by medical specialists. They will continuously develop and expand skills about anatomical, physiological and pathological processes.

Information technology for Radiology Technicians – 5 ETCS

Description of the module: Upon completing the course, students will understand the systematic and interoperability of network components. They are able to describe the structure and duties of the systems KIS / RIS / PACS. They become familiar with DICOM standard and can describe its use in RIS / PACS system.

Risks and protection against the radiation -5 ETCS

Upon completing the course, students will understand physical and biological bases of radiation protection, the risks of ionizing radiation in particular regarding the uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, as well as respective legal guidelines for clinical radiation protection. They will know how to operate with devices for measuring radiation, and are able to use them. Based on their theoretical knowledge they can initiate necessary protocols in case of an accident radiation. Students will be able to provide less radiation exposure to the patient, still ensuring optimal imaging results.

Ultrasound imaging – 6 ETCS

Upon completing this course, students will be able to recognize ultrasound waves, principles of their transformation into images and evaluation of acquired images for analysing the body parts. They are able to identify and differentiate anatomical structures with ultrasound images. They can evaluate how and which anatomical structure will be seen in an image. Students are able to recognize typical pathology during examination. They are able to recognize parts of the ultrasound device, manipulate with them and produce the highest quality image. Upon completing this module, students will be able to recognize and show organs in ultrasound images and discuss every detail with radiologists.

Practice 2- 6 ETCS

Graduates of this class are able to use correctly and efficiently devices, based on their understanding regarding the construction and operational use of the aforementioned devices. They understand the exceptional situation in which the patient lies, and are prepared to interact with him/her. They are able to position the patient with clear and precise directions and provide assistance in relation to the particular patient pointer and needs.

II

Pharmacology and the use of the contrast dye in radiology – 3 ETCS

Students will gain knowledge about pharmacology and technical information regarding the contrast agents used in radiology, which will serve as basis for their use in practice. They will ensure safety of the patient and rational use of the contrast agents. Student will be introduced to different drugs used in the daily professional practice, pharmacology, administration, risks, legislation and policy documents. Students will be able to understand the physics of the contrast agents and x-ray absorption by conventional radiology and computerized tomography.

Radiation therapy and radiation protection – 3 ETCS

Upon completing this course, students will become familiar with standard clinical procedures of radio-oncology for the most common tumours. They will know how to localize the tumour, and they will become familiar with instructions for radio-oncological treatments. Students will know which responsibilities fall to whom (physicist, doctor, nursing staff) and are able to work together in a multi-professional team. They will be able to professionally perform examinations and treat procedures. They will be able to use correctly and efficiently devices based on their understanding regarding construction and operational use of aforementioned devices. Students will become familiar with safety features from tele-therapy radiation and brachytherapy (also known as internal radiotherapy).

Nuclear medicine and radiation protection – 3 ETCS

Upon completing this module, students will gain an understanding of physical-technical principles, projection and application possibilities of the modality examinations by scintigraphy. Students will become familiar with image creation and rendering and will be able to reconstruct, modify and optimize the screening parameters. They can professionally perform examination and treatment procedures and will be able to use correctly and efficiently devices based on their understanding on construction and operational use of the aforementioned devices.

Magnetic resonance imaging 1- 1 ETCS

Upon completing this course students will be able to recognize the waves of magnetic resonance, principles of their transformation to imaging and evaluation of images in order to analyse body parts. They will be able to recognize different sequences of magnetic resonance arising from the interaction of magnetic moment vectors in the balance with radiofrequency wave. The purpose of this module is to train radiology technicians to understand and implement various radiological surveys, using magnetic resonance imaging in order to get the body imaging. Students will become familiar with the principles of RM magnetic resonance imaging acquisition, with parts of devices, spirals, positioning of the patient, the use of paramagnetic contrast and the use of the automatic injector.

Computerized tomography imaging 1- 9 ETCS

Upon completing this course, students will understand technical and physical principles, planning and possible areas of applying tomography modalities. They will become familiar with components of creating images, calculations and post-processing. They will be able to rebuild, change and choose the screening parameters and will be able to position and control patients in an optimal way.

Practice 3- 6 ETCS

Upon completing this internship, students will be able to operate with tomographic modalities. They will become familiar with image creation components, rendering and their editing. They will be able to enter data and modify parameters of examination by themselves. They will be able to independently apply, and if necessary optimize images and match their editing. They will take care for positioning and examination of patients

Magnetic resonance imaging 2- 7 ETCS

Upon completing this course, students will be able to create a plan for the screening imaging procedure and prepare the patient for MR screening. They can screen the central nervous system, digestive tube, abdominal organs and pelvic urologic system, thoracic organs, osteo-muscular system, blood vessels and the entire body. They will also be able to independently perform dynamic procedures with magnetic resonance.

Computerized tomography imaging 2- 7 ETCS

Upon completing this module, students will gain knowledge on the principles of practical work with computerized tomography CT, with the latest achievements in the field of imaging with CT and its importance in the field of radiology. They will be able to operate with classical and coil CT devise – monolayer and multilayer. They will be able to preserve the data obtained and post process the acquired data. They will be able to perform the CT of nervous system, abdominal pelvic organs, urinary system, osteo-muscular system and blood vessels. They will be introduced to test bolus and bolus tracking. They will get acquainted with CT colonoscopy, CT brontograph and other advanced diagnostic procedures as well as CT possibilities in interventional radiological procedures, drainage and biopsy.

First aid -5 ETCS

Students will learn basic principles and definitions of surgery for emergency medical care; they will learn basic procedures for emergency medical care in different emergency situations; they will learn how emergency medical services function in cases of incidents with multiple victims; they will understand the extraordinary importance of healthcare documentation; they will learn how the health system works during crisis and will understand the ethical issues in emergency medical care; they will learn to differentiate between first aid and emergency medical care; they will use theoretical and practical knowledge of emergency medical care in practice; they will adopt the practice based on new evidences in the field of emergency care medicine.

Digital Subraction Angiography DSA -3 ETCS

Students will become familiar with basic principles of digital subtraction angiography ADS operation, with the most recent achievements in this area and with methods of imaging with simulation classroom procedures. They will be introduced to the principles of ADS image acquisitions, parts of the devise, technical possibilities of ADS, 2D and 3D diagnostic possibilities. They will be introduced to indications for ADS, to basic working principles of ADS operating rooms in antisepsis conditions, radiation protection for patients and the staff. Students will be instructed to preliminary preparations for patients’ interventional radiological procedures, the Seldinger’s method, imaging of head blood vessels, neck, upper extremities, thorax-abdominal aorta, visceral arteries and lower extremity arteries.

Practice 4- 8 ETCS

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III

3D imaging reconstructions – 9 ETCS

Upon completing this course, students will be trained to recognize three-dimensional images, create reconstructive base of each imaging technique in order to enable post processing in three planes. Students will learn reconstructive methods for computerized tomography, digital subtraction angiography with rotation and magnetic resonance imaging. They will be trained to plan and implement reconstructing screenings of various body parts, angiography with CT and MRI and biopsies. Students will also be able to make three-dimensional reconstruction with SSD and VR techniques.

Security in the working place – sepsis /antisepsis – 3 ETCS

Students will be trained in the basic methodology and laboratory diagnostics of infectious diseases. They will be able to correlate diagnostic imaging examinations with laboratory tests, in order to keep medical records adequately. They will become familiar with risks posed during the work, transmission of many diseases through contact and body fluids in case of not respecting rules against antisepsis.

Social interaction and professional appearance reflection – 3 ETCS

Graduates understand the patients’ care and support as part of their duties in the future and they also understand the importance of their actions for patients’ full health care. Based on their knowledge related to indications and contra indications, they are able to understand the importance of radio technology screening or specific treatment, and if necessary they can consult the attending physician regarding the relevant medical information that is missing. They are able to inform patients about their future treatments and examinations and answer any questions that the patient may pose.

Practice 5- 15 ETCS

Graduates are able to perform professional examinations and treatments in all subdomains, and operate devices based on their understanding regarding the functionality of such devices. They are able to position the patient with clear and precise orders and provide assistance in relation to the indications and specific needs of the patient, as well as to develop alternatives in positioning the patient. They are able to inform patients about the course of examination, guiding them in necessary preparatory measures, preparing them for the screening and documenting the screening in collaboration with a doctor.

Interventional radiology – 4 ETCS

Graduates will have a deep sense related to therapeutic radiology possibilities through minimal invasive radiological procedures. They will become familiar with vascular and non-vascular procedures, in correlation with radiological imaging methods used: ultrasound, computerized tomography, digital subtraction angiography, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Ethics and medical tourism -2 ETCS

Content of the course: -introduction to medical tourism, innovations and impact on modern medicine.
– ethics, challenges, standards & future of medical tourism
– professional medicine – The Patient & the Law
– healthcare marketing ethics

Sports and diet – 3 ETCS

Students will understand what kind of nutritional support requires the body in different periods of life and different levels of physical maintenance and various diseases; students will understand and become familiar with basic definitions and functions of metabolic health at risk and sick population; they will understand the importance of clinical nutrition as an integral part of preventive and curative medicine; they will understand the importance of clinical nutrition in their field of work; students can specify the clinical nutrition activities within the country’s health care system; they can distinguish between healthy nutrition, population at risk and sick population; they will apply in practice the basic principles of clinical nutrition; students will follow the health care requirements when applying in practice their skills and knowledge of clinical nutrition.

The quality of radiology imaging -3 ETCS

Participants are familiar with theoretical foundations of quality assurance and defined means, and are able to actively apply in the framework of a group project. They understand the basic structure of projects and have the ability to work individually on given job assignments. Graduates understand the importance of technical measures for quality assurance used in radiology technology and are able to assess the impact of technical quality assurance to the benefit of optimal patient care. They are also able to assess the importance of their work quality to optimal patient care.

Management of Human Resources in Health Institutions -3 ETCS

This course provides knowledge and applies methods that naturally create the potential in the importance of Human Resources, offering concepts and instruments for Human Resources Management in various organizations, in particular medical ones, with the aim of rational use and possibility of increasing human potential and satisfaction, motivation and commitment at work. Addressing the health care system from a global perspective and the importance of Human Resource Management (HRM) affect in improving the patient overall health outcomes by providing health care services.

Bachelor theme -8 ETCS

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Practice 6-7 ETCS

Graduates are able to perform accurate, fast and independent examination / treatment in compliance with hygiene protocol and radiation protection. They demonstrate practical skills to decision making and respond professionally in challenging situations with patients.

NJOFTIM: MASAT E REJA ANTI COVID_19 – SHTYHET AFATI I PROVIMEVE TË SHTATORIT

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MASAT E REJA ANTI COVID_19